Treatment and Surgical Procedures for Cardiovascular Diseases

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Published on: August 21, 2017

To treat different cardiovascular diseases, the person is advised by the cardiologist to make changes in diet and lifestyle, to take medications based on the heart screening tests, to monitor blood pressure everyday, and to undergo surgical procedure if needed and as advised by a heart surgeon.

Lifestyle Changes

For some people in Singapore who were able to get diagnosis and treatment early, changing bad habits may be the only solution to the problem.

1. Diet. Changes in the diet can improve most symptoms. That doesn’t mean you can no longer eat your favorite food, but you have to do everything in moderation. Go for balanced meals that provide your body with all the nutrients needed without relying on supplements. You might have to lower the sodium, solid fats, refined grains and sugar content in your food, however.

2. Drinking. This refers not just to alcoholic beverages but to sugary drinks as well. Drink less soda and always opt for water instead. Even juice drinks should be consumed moderately. As for alcoholic drinks, one glass a day should be enough to help your body.

3. Weight. Being overweight or obese increases the chances of getting heart diseases. To recover from illnesses, you will need to cut down on your calorie intake by eating small portions of food and eating a balanced diet. If you’re having trouble changing your diet, talk to your heart doctor about recommending a dietitian to help you lose weight safely. Your cardiologist will also advise that you need to have a BMI less than 25 as well as a waistline not more than 35 inches.

4. Exercise. Even if you start watching your diet, you cannot maintain a healthy weight if you just sit the whole day. You need to be more active or else even the best cardiologist in Singapore can’t help you. But before you start working out, ask your cardiologist while doing a heart screen test at Gleneagles in Singapore about the correct exercise plan that is safe for you. Some people are not supposed to exert a lot of effort and walking might be the only exercise they need.

5. Smoking. Most doctors would advise patients to quit smoking as the first step in relieving symptoms not just in cardiovascular diseases, but in many other illnesses as well. People who are also exposed to secondhand smoke are at risk.

6. Stress. Stay away from people and things that can cause stress. If you’re stressed, your body will try to compensate by over-eating and drinking. Talk to your heart doctor if you are having a hard time managing stress at work and home. You might be showing signs of depression too, which will only aggravate your heart disease.


The following might be prescribed for your cardiovascular disease.

1. Beta-Blockers. These medicines will prevent the adrenaline hormone from acting on your heart. The effect is that your heart rate slows down, allowing the heart to pump blood more efficiently without over-working.

2. Calcium Channel Blockers. These are used to help the muscles in your heart contract and pump by preventing the movement of calcium into the heart and blood vessels. The effect is that the blood vessels are able to relax.

3. Antiplatelent Agents. One example of this is the Aspirin. It will help stop blood clots from forming. The antiplatelet agent will prevent the blood platelets from sticking together.

4. Anticoagulants. They are called blood thinners because they decrease the coagulation of blood in the blood vessels that could cause a stroke.

5. ACE Inhibitors. These are medications that lower the levels of angiotensin II so that the blood vessels can expand. The blood is able to flow freely without obstruction in the blood vessels.

6. Vasodilators. Your heart doctor in Singapore might refer to this as nitrates. They help your blood vessels relax so that the heart isn’t over-worked.

7. Diuretics. Your body needs to get rid of excess amounts of sodium and fluids. Diuretics can help by removing the buildup fluids and disposing them through the urine.

8. Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers. These function differently from ACE inhibitors. ARBs prevent angiotensin II from affecting the blood vessels and the heart so that the blood pressure stays normal.

9. Digitalis Preparations. It is prescribed by the cardiologist for people with irregular heartbeats and heart failure. It is supposed to increase the force of your heart’s contractions.

10. Angiotensin-Receptor Neprilysin Inhibitors. This is a combination of ARB and a neprilysin inhibitor. It works by breaking down the blockages in the arteries and reducing the salt retention.

11. Combined Alpha and Beta Blockers. This is used on patients during a hypertensive crisis and to prevent heart failure.

12. Cholesterol-Lowering Medicines. The cardiologist might prescribe one of these three; statins, nicotinic acids or cholesterol absorption inhibitors.

Surgical Procedures

Before a surgical procedure is recommended, the cardiologist will need to assess your overall health using various heart screening tests. If lifestyle changes and medication can’t repair the damage to the heart or the blood vessels, the cardiologist will refer you to a heart surgeon.

1. Bypass Surgery. This will help improve the flow of blood to the heart for people with coronary heart disease. The heart surgeon grafts a healthy artery or vein so that it goes around the blocked vessel.

2. Heart Valve Repair/Replacement. The heart surgeon will recommend this to people with damaged valves by replacing the valve with man-made or biological valve, inserting a catheter in a large blood vessel to the heart or by making a cut in the chest and left ventricle.

3. Heart Transplant. This is the removal of the person’s heart so it can be replaced with a healthy heart from a donor.

4. Angioplasty. This procedure attaches tubes and a balloon to the arteries so that the blocked blood vessels are widened. Sometimes a catheter with a laser tip is used instead. Atherectomy is also a similar procedure which uses a rotating shaver on the catheter instead of the laser.

5. Transmyocardial Revascularization. The heart surgeon makes an incision on the left breast so that the heart can be drilled.

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